Predicated on the outcomes, we conclude that the CTX-II focus is markedly linked to the prevalence and progression of OA of the knee and hip, and that these associations are independent of known risk elements for radiographic OA. The current presence of joint pain seems to augment this relationship, he notes, which can reflect the effects of a continuing OA process. The increase of CTX-II in women after menopause may reflect a protective aftereffect of estrogen against cartilage loss. Further research is necessary to establish the scientific utility of this novel biomarker for OA. .. A new marker for osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a common, crippling age-related disease seen as a the gradual destruction of cartilage cushioning the joints.‘ Developing our understanding of infections and their interactions with each other may facilitate deeper insight into combating infectious illnesses. ‘ 454 Lifestyle Sciences, a center of excellence of Roche Applied Science, evolves and commercializes the innovative 454 Sequencing program for ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing. Specific applications consist of de novo sequencing and re-sequencing of genomes, metagenomics, RNA evaluation, and targeted sequencing of DNA regions of curiosity. The hallmarks of the 454 Sequencing program are its simple, unbiased sample planning and long, highly accurate sequence reads, including paired-end reads. The technology of the 454 Sequencing system has enabled a huge selection of peer-reviewed studies in diverse research fields, such as cancer and infectious disease study, drug discovery, marine biology, anthropology, paleontology and many more.